Timeline History


The development of these farming communities ultimately led to the accretion of larger settlements from the later 4th millennium.
The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. It is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE, Harappan 2), named after a site in northern Sindh near Mohenjo Daro. Some of the most important discoveries in the Ravi Phase relate to writing. The earliest examples of the Indus script date from around 3000 BC, placing the origins of writing in South Asia at approximately the same time as those of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri. Kot Diji (Harappan 2) represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan, with the citadel representing centralized authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River.
This distinctive, regional culture which emerged is called Early or Pre-Harappan. Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. Villagers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the water buffalo.

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