Timeline History

Terrorism History Timeline 1991-2000

Year Terror groups Terrorism War colonism dictators Coups military rule / emergency rule Weapons
1991 Abu Sayyaf Philippines, Malaysia
Separatist group composed of several semiautonomous factions Aims to create Islamic state in Philippines; profit-driven terror

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU); South Asia, Tajikistan, Iran
Islamic militants opposed to Uzbekistani President Islom Karimov's secular regime Aims to remove Karimov, establish an Islamic state, and fight anti-Islamic opponents
Iraqi agents planted bombs at the U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia's home residence and at the United States Information Service (USIS) library in Manila. (Jan 18-19)

Three Red Army Faction members fired automatic rifles from across the Rhine River at the U.S. Embassy Chancery. No one was hurt. (Feb 13)
Gulf War. (1991)

Haitian Civil War

Slovenian War of Independence

Croatian War of Independence (1991 -1995)

Moldovan Civil War (1991 - 1992)

Togolese Civil War (1991 - 1992)

Sierra Leonean Civil War (1991 - 1999)

Djibouti Civil War (1991 - 1994)

Somalian Civil War (1991 - 1999)
Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (born February 19, 1940) has been the most powerful figure in Turkmenistan since 1985.

Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (born January 30, 1938) has been the President of Uzbekistan since 1991.
1992 Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC); Algeria
Outgrowth of GIA and the most effective armed group in Algeria Military and government targets, pledges to avoid civilians

Armed Islamic Group (GIA)
Algeria Islamic extremists Aims to replace Algerian regime with an Islamic state
A senior official of the corporation Philippine Geothermal was kidnapped in Manila by the Red Scorpion Group, and two U.S. businessmen were seized independently by the National Liberation Army and by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). (Jan 17-21) Venezuelan Uprising

Bosnian Civil War (1992 -1995)

Algerian Civil War (1992 - 1999)
Senior General Than Shwe (born February 2, 1933) is the ruler of Myanmar (Burma), serving as chairman of the State Peace and Development Council since April 23, 1992.

Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov (born October 5, 1952) has been the President of Tajikistan since 1994 (and the head of state since 1992).
1993   Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) terrorists kidnapped three U.S. missionaries. (Jan 31)

The World Trade Center in New York City was badly damaged when a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists exploded in an underground garage. The bomb left 6 people dead and 1,000 injured. The men carrying out the attack were followers of Umar Abd al-Rahman, an Egyptian cleric who preached in the New York City area. (Feb 26)

The Iraqi intelligence service attempted to assassinate former U.S. President George Bush during a visit to Kuwait. In retaliation, the U.S. launched a cruise missile attack 2 months later on the Iraqi capital Baghdad. (Apr 14)

A US black hawk helicopter is shot down over Mogadishu, the Somali capital. Up to 1,000 Somalis and 18 US rangers are killed in the battle that follows, the most violent episode in a failed US peacekeeping mission that saw the death of 25 American soldiers. Al-Qaida suspected

Muslim underworld figures tied to Pakistani militants allegedly carry out a series of bombings that strike Mumbai’s stock exchange along with trains, hotels and gas stations in the city, killing 257 people and wounding more than 1,100. (Mar 1993)
Russian Rebellion

Burundian Civil War (1993 - 1999)
Isaias Afewerki (born 2 February 1945) is the first president of Eritrea since 1993    
1994 Kahane Chai (Kach); Israel, West Bank
Jewish extremist group aims to restore the biblical state of Israel Organizes protests against the Israeli government
Jewish right-wing extremist and U.S. citizen Baruch Goldstein machine-gunned Moslem worshippers at a mosque in West Bank town of Hebron, killing 29 and wounding about 150. (Feb 25)

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebels kidnapped U.S. citizen Thomas Hargrove in Colombia. (Sep 23)
Chiapas Rebellion

Chechen Revolt (1994 - 1995)

Ghanian Civil War (1994 - 1995)
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994.

Kim Jong-il (born February 16, 1941) is the leader of Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a position he has held since 1994.
1995 Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA); Athens, Greece
Emerged from antiestablishment and anti-U.S./NATO/EU leftist groups Targets U.S. and European interests and government buildings in Greece
Two unidentified gunmen killed two U.S. diplomats and wounded a third in Karachi, Pakistan. (March 8)

Right-wing extremists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols destroyed the Federal Building in Oklahoma City with a massive truck bomb that killed 166 and injured hundreds more in what was up to then the largest terrorist attack on American soil. (Apr 19)

In India six foreigners, including two U.S. citizens, were taken hostage by Al-Faran, a Kashmiri separatist group. One non-U.S. hostage was later found beheaded. (July 4)

HAMAS claimed responsibility for the detonation of a bomb that killed 6 and injured over 100 persons, including several U.S. citizens. (Aug 21)

A rocket-propelled grenade was fired through the window of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, ostensibly in retaliation for U.S. strikes on Serb positions in Bosnia. (Sept 13)

The Islamic Movement of Change planted a bomb in a Riyadh military compound that killed one U.S. citizen, several foreign national employees of the U.S. government, and over 40 others. (Nov 13)

Car bomb attack on the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan. 16 people were killed. (Nov 19) Responsibility : Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
US Intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ecuadoran-Peruvian Border War
His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born in 1950 in Doha, Qatar) is the current Emir of Qatar.    
1996 Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ); Pakistan, Afghanistan
A Sunni sectarian radical group banned in Pakistan in 2001 Anti-Shi'ite group aims to create a Muslim state in Pakistan
Members of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) rammed an explosives-laden truck into the Central Bank in the heart of downtown Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing 90 civilians and injuring more than 1,400 others, including 2 US citizens. (Jan 31)

In Jerusalem, a suicide bomber blew up a bus, killing 26 persons, including three U.S. citizens, and injuring some 80 persons, including three other US citizens. (Feb 26)

Europa Hotel shooting, Cairo. 18 Greek tourists were killed. (April 28) Responsibility : Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) rebels kidnapped six missionaries in Mapourdit, including a U.S. citizen, an Italian, three Australians, and a Sudanese. The SPLA released the hostages 11 days later. (Aug 17)

In Sudan a breakaway group from the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) kidnapped three International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) workers, including a U.S. citizen, an Australian, and a Kenyan. On 9 December the rebels released the hostages in exchange for ICRC supplies and a health survey for their camp. (Nov 1)

Five armed men claiming to be members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) kidnapped and later killed a U.S. geologist at a methane gas exploration site in La Guajira Department. (Dec 11)
Mexican Revolt

Zairian Civil War (1996 - 1997)
1997 United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC); Colombia
Umbrella organization that consolidates paramilitary groups Targets “insurgents” from FARC and ELN
A Palestinian gunman opened fire on tourists at an observation deck atop the Empire State Building in New York City, killing a Danish national and wounding visitors from the United States, Argentina, Switzerland, and France before turning the gun on himself. A handwritten note carried by the gunman claimed this was a punishment attack against the "enemies of Palestine." (Feb 23)

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) guerrillas kidnapped a U.S. mining employee and his Colombian colleague who were searching for gold in Colombia. On November 16, the rebels released the two hostages after receiving a $50,000 ransom. (March 7)

Three suicide bombers of HAMAS detonated bombs in the Ben Yehuda shopping mall in Jerusalem, killing eight persons, including the bombers, and wounding nearly 200 others. A dual U.S./Israeli citizen was among the dead, and 7 U.S. citizens were wounded. (Sept 4)

Luxor massacre at Deir el-Bahri, Luxor, Egypt. 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians were killed. (Nov 17) Responsibility : Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya
Albanian Rebellion

Congolese Civil War
1998 Real IRA; Northern Ireland, UK, Irish Republic
Armed wing of the 32-County Sovereignty Movement to unify Ireland Targets civilians, military, police, and Protestant communities
Somali militiamen abducted nine Red Cross and Red Crescent workers at an airstrip north of Mogadishu. The hostages included a U.S. citizen, a German, a Belgian, a French, a Norwegian, two Swiss, and one Somali. The gunmen were members of a sub-clan loyal to Ali Mahdi Mohammed, who controlled the northern section of the capital. (Apr 15)

US embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, are simultaneously bombed, killing 258 people and injuring more than 5,000.

A National Liberation Army (ELN) planted bomb exploded on the Ocensa pipeline in Antioquia Department, killing approximately 71 persons and injuring at least 100 others. The pipeline is jointly owned by the Colombia State Oil Company Ecopetrol and a consortium including U.S., French, British, and Canadian companies. (Oct 18)
Kosovo Uprising

Congolese Civil War (1998 - 1999)
General Khamtai Siphandon (born February 8, 1924) is the former president of Laos. He served from February 24, 1998 until June 8, 2006, when he was officially replaced by Choummaly Sayasone.

Pol Pot dies in the evening of 15 April. He was the Prime Minister of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979. During his time in power Pol Pot imposed a version of agrarian collectivization whereby city dwellers were relocated to the countryside to work in collective farms and forced labor projects with the goal of restarting civilization in "Year Zero". The combined effect of slave labour, malnutrition, poor medical care and executions had an estimated death toll of 750,000 to 1.7 million
1999   A UN plane carrying one U.S. citizen, four Angolans, two Philippine nationals and one Namibian was shot down, according to a UN official. No deaths or injuries were reported. Angolan authorities blamed the attack on National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) rebels. UNITA officials denied shooting down the plane. (Jan 2)

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) kidnapped three U.S. citizens working for the Hawaii-based Pacific Cultural Conservancy International. On March 4, the bodies of the three victims were found in Venezuela. (Feb 25)

150 armed Hutu rebels attacked three tourist camps in Uganda, killed four Ugandans, and abducted three U.S. citizens, six Britons, three New Zealanders, two Danish citizens, one Australian, and one Canadian national. Two of the U.S. citizens and six of the other hostages were subsequently killed by their abductors. (March 1)

In Cali, Colombia, armed The National Liberation Army (ELN) militants attacked a church in the neighborhood of Ciudad Jardin, kidnapping 160 persons, including six U.S. citizens and one French national. The rebels released approximately 80 persons, including three U.S. citizens, later that day. (May 30)

Burmese dissidents seized the Burmese Embassy in Bangkok, Thailand, taking 89 persons hostage, including one U.S. citizen. (Oct 1)

Colombian People's Liberation Army (PLA) forces kidnapped a U.S. citizen in an unsuccessful ransoming effort. (Dec 23)
Ethiopian-Eritrean Border War Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of Russia. He succeeded Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1999.

Abdelaziz Bouteflika born March 2, 1937 in Morocco has been the President of Algeria since 1999.

General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943) is currently the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. He took power on October 12, 1999 after a coup d'état and assumed the title of President on June 20, 2001.
2000 Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed); Pakistan
Islamic extremist group formed after Masood Azhar's release from prison. Aims to unite Kashmir with Pakistan, targets Indian government and political leaders

Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade; West Bank, Gaza Strip, Israel
Small cells of Fatah-affiliated activists Aims to drive out Israelis and to establish a Palestinian state
A bomb exploded in a plaza across the street from the U.S. Embassy in Manila, injuring nine persons. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front was likely responsible. (Dec 30)

In Sucumbios Province, Ecuador, a group of armed kidnappers led by former members of defunct Colombian terrorist organization the Popular Liberation Army (EPL), took hostage 10 employees of Spanish energy consortium REPSOL. Those kidnapped included five U.S. citizens, one Argentine, one Chilean, one New Zealander, and two French pilots who escaped four days later. On January 30, 2001, the kidnappers murdered American hostage Ronald Sander. The remaining hostages were released on February 23 following the payment of $13 million in ransom by the oil companies. (Oct 12)

In Aden, Yemen, a small dingy carrying explosives rammed the destroyer U.S.S. Cole, killing 17 sailors and injuring 39 others. Supporters of Usama Bin Laden were suspected. (Oct 12)

Unidentified militants detonated two bombs in a Christian church in Dushanbe, killing seven persons and injuring 70 others. The church was founded by a Korean-born U.S. citizen, and most of those killed and wounded were Korean. No one claimed responsibility. (Oct 1)

In the Kara-Su Valley, the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan took four U.S. citizens hostage. The Americans escaped on August 12. (Aug 12)

In Bogota, Colombia, ELN militants kidnapped a 5-year-old U.S. citizen and his Colombian mother, demanding an undisclosed ransom. (Jun 27)

On 1 May in Makeni, Sierra Leone, Revolutionary United Front (RUF) militants kidnapped at least 20 members of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) and surrounded and opened fire on a UNAMSIL facility, according to press reports. The militants killed five UN soldiers in the attack. RUF militants kidnapped 300 UNAMSIL peacekeepers throughout the country, according to press reports. On 15 May in Foya, Liberia, the kidnappers released 139 hostages. On 28 May, on the Liberia and Sierra Leone border, armed militants released unharmed the last of the UN peacekeepers. (May 1)
Laurent Koudou Gbagbo (born May 31, 1945) has been the president of The Ivory Coast since 2000.

Paul Kagame (born October 23, 1957) is the current President of Rwanda. The founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, he is best known for his role in stopping the Rwandan Genocide in 1994, and his involvement in the Second Congo War.

Bashar al-Assad (born September 11, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad.
Year Terror groups Terrorism War colonism dictators Coups military rule / emergency rule Weapons

Terror History Timeline 1981-1990

Terror History Timeline 2001-Present

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